Java after the Treaty of Giyanti, 1755


The place of boundaries in early Javanese political geography has been subject to considerable debate. Some scholars have stressed the importance of the political centre - the court and capital - in defining the identity of a regime and have argued that political authority simply attenuated with distance from the centre, so that there were no true external boundaries. On the other hand, there is the evidence of Airlangga's partition of his kingdom, as well as evidence of the demarcation of regions using stone tugu, or monuments.

Further reading

Carey, Peter, ‘Waiting for the 'Just King': the agrarian world of South-Central Java from Giyanti (1755), to the Java war (1825-30)’, Modern Asian Studies 20, part I (1986), pp. 59-139.

Ricklefs, M.C., Jogjakarta under Sultan Mangkubumi, 1749-1792: a history of the division of Java.  London: Oxford University Press, 1974.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

1755 - 1755